This article explains how to determine memory usage statistics on a server by using the free command.
To determine memory usage statistics on a server, follow these steps:
Interpret the free command output. For example, consider the following sample output from a server:
[email protected]:~# free -m total used free shared buffers cached Mem: 2003 1338 665 0 149 1015 -/+ buffers/cache: 172 1830 Swap: 0 0 0
You may be tempted to look at the Mem row, scan the used and free columns, and determine that the server is using 1338 MB of RAM, and the amount of free RAM is only 665 MB. However, this is incorrect. In fact, the server is only using 172 MB of RAM, and has 1830 MB of free RAM.
This is because Linux uses free memory for disk caching to improve performance. This memory, listed in the buffers and cached columns, is available immediately for any application that may need it. Although it is technically being “used” by Linux in the background, for all practical purposes this memory is free and available. So if you add the free memory (665 MB), buffers memory (149 MB), and cached memory (1015 MB) values, you obtain 1829 MB, which is the actual amount of memory available for applications. (The discrepancy between the 1829 MB that we calculated and the 1830 MB shown in the output is due to rounding because we used the -m option. If you run the free command without this option to obtain amounts in bytes, the numbers will add up exactly.)
In newer versions of Linux, determining the amount of memory available for applications is significantly easier. This is because the output of the free command includes an available column. For example, consider the following sample output:
total used free shared buff/cache available Mem: 7882 2465 2278 666 3138 4458 Swap: 0 0 0
In this case, there is 4458 MB of memory available for applications.
For a humorous explanation of memory usage in Linux, please visit http://www.linuxatemyram.com.
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